SSH: How to clear the entire mail queue

even developers need heroesThere are two ways to do this:

  1. Use Plesk interface: Tools & Settings > Mail Server Settings > Mail Queue > ClearBut this will not work when a spammer is heavy loading your server. It will become desperately slow and you will not be able to open ‘Mail Queue’ tab.

So, this is  your my  choice:

  1. Use command-line utility:
    # /usr/local/psa/admin/sbin/mailqueuemng --clean

# /usr/local/psa/admin/sbin/mailqueuemng -D

For more info do this:
# /usr/local/psa/admin/sbin/mailqueuemng --help | grep 'delete all messages in the queue'
-D : delete all messages in the queue (local and remote)

Dragos Fedorovici (dragos.fedorovici.com) describes another method which I have used in the past and it worked perfectly fine for me:


I will describe today how you can clear the queue for qmail, for a server that is running Plesk. First of all you should use one of the methods described with caution. The second method described is an automation of the first method and this is why I will include both of them. This method only removes the messages from the queue, and nothing else is lost.

First of all check the number of messages from the queue using the qmail-qstat tool:

[root@test /]# /var/qmail/bin/qmail-qstat
messages in queue: 22463
messages in queue but not yet preprocessed: 22

To remove the messages from the queue ALWAYS stop the qmail service first, to avoid having to reconfigure it again:

service qmail stop

Once the service is stopped execute the following commands one by one (based on the number of files stuck in the queue, this may take a while):

find /var/qmail/queue/mess -type f -exec rm {} \;
find /var/qmail/queue/info -type f -exec rm {} \;
find /var/qmail/queue/local -type f -exec rm {} \;
find /var/qmail/queue/intd -type f -exec rm {} \;
find /var/qmail/queue/todo -type f -exec rm {} \;
find /var/qmail/queue/remote -type f -exec rm {} \;

Finally start the mail service and recheck the queue to ensure that all the messages have been removed:

service qmail start

To automate this process I have two scripts available (basically are performing the same operations as above). For those that receive oversized file truncating errors please use the 2nd script – it takes a little longer but gets the job done.

wget http://dragos.fedorovici.com/qmailclear.sh
wget http://dragos.fedorovici.com/qmailclean.sh
sh qmailclean.sh
sh qmailclear.sh

end quote and thanks to Dragos!



Chuletas: Common Linux Shell Commands

Common Linux Shell Commands
ls : list files/directories in a directory, comparable to dir in windows/dos.
ls -al : shows all files (including ones that start with a period), directories, and details attributes for each file.

cd : change directory ·· cd /usr/local/apache : go to /usr/local/apache/ directory
cd ~ : go to your home directory
cd – : go to the last directory you were in
cd .. : go up a directory cat : print file contents to the screen

cat filename.txt : cat the contents of filename.txt to your screen

chmod: changes file access permissions
The set of 3 go in this order from left to right:

0 = — No permission
1 = –X Execute only
2 = -W- Write only
3 = -WX Write and execute
4 = R– Read only
5 = R-X Read and execute
6 = RW- Read and write
7 = RWX Read, write and execute

chmod numberpermissions filename

chmod 000 : No one can access
chmod 644: Usually for HTML pages
chmod 755: Usually for CGI scripts

chown: changes file ownership permissions
The set of 2 go in this order from left to right:

chown root myfile.txt : Changes the owner of the file to root
chown root.root myfile.txt : Changes the owner and group of the file to root

tail : like cat, but only reads the end of the file
tail /var/log/messages : see the last 20 (by default) lines of /var/log/messages
tail -f /var/log/messages : watch the file continuously, while it’s being updated
tail -200 /var/log/messages : print the last 200 lines of the file to the screen

more : like cat, but opens the file one screen at a time rather than all at once
more /etc/userdomains : browse through the userdomains file. hit Space to go to the next page, q to quit

pico : friendly, easy to use file editor
pico /home/burst/public_html/index.html : edit the index page for the user’s website.

File Editing with VI commands
vi : another editor, tons of features, harder to use at first than pico
vi /home/burst/public_html/index.html : edit the index page for the user’s website.
Whie in the vi program you can use the following useful commands, you will need to hit SHIFT + : to go into command mode

:q! : This force quits the file without saving and exits vi
:w : This writes the file to disk, saves it
:wq : This saves the file to disk and exists vi
:LINENUMBER : EG :25 : Takes you to line 25 within the file
:$ : Takes you to the last line of the file
:0 : Takes you to the first line of the file

grep : looks for patterns in files
grep root /etc/passwd : shows all matches of root in /etc/passwd
grep -v root /etc/passwd : shows all lines that do not match root

ln : create’s “links” between files and directories
ln -s /usr/local/apache/conf/httpd.conf /etc/httpd.conf : Now you can edit /etc/httpd.conf rather than the original. changes will affect the orginal, however you can delete the link and it will not delete the original.

last : shows who logged in and when
last -20 : shows only the last 20 logins
last -20 -a : shows last 20 logins, with the hostname in the last field

w : shows who is currently logged in and where they are logged in from.
who : This also shows who is on the server in an shell.

netstat : shows all current network connections.
netstat -an : shows all connections to the server, the source and destination ips and ports.
netstat -rn : shows routing table for all ips bound to the server.

top : shows live system processes in a nice table, memory information, uptime and other useful info. This is excellent for managing your system processes, resources and ensure everything is working fine and your server isn’t bogged down.
top then type Shift + M to sort by memory usage or Shift + P to sort by CPU usage

ps: ps is short for process status, which is similar to the top command. It’s used to show currently running processes and their PID.
A process ID is a unique number that identifies a process, with that you can kill or terminate a running program on your server (see kill command).
ps U username : shows processes for a certain user
ps aux : shows all system processes
ps aux –forest : shows all system processes like the above but organizes in a hierarchy that’s very useful!

touch : create an empty file
touch /home/burst/public_html/404.html : create an empty file called 404.html in the directory /home/burst/public_html/

file : attempts to guess what type of file a file is by looking at it’s content.
file * : prints out a list of all files/directories in a directory

du : shows disk usage.
du -sh : shows a summary, in human-readble form, of total disk space used in the current directory, including subdirectories.
du -sh * : same thing, but for each file and directory. helpful when finding large files taking up space.

wc : word count
wc -l filename.txt : tells how many lines are in filename.txt

cp : copy a file
cp filename filename.backup : copies filename to filename.backup
cp -a /home/burst/new_design/* /home/burst/public_html/ : copies all files, retaining permissions form one directory to another.
cp -av * ../newdir : Copies all files and directories recurrsively in the current directory INTO newdir

mv : Move a file command
mv oldfilename newfilename : Move a file or directory from oldfilename to newfilename

rm : delete a file
rm filename.txt : deletes filename.txt, will more than likely ask if you really want to delete it
rm -f filename.txt : deletes filename.txt, will not ask for confirmation before deleting.
rm -rf tmp/ : recursively deletes the directory tmp, and all files in it, including subdirectories. BE VERY CAREFULL WITH THIS COMMAND!!!

: Creating and Extracting .tar.gz and .tar files
tar -zxvf file.tar.gz : Extracts the file
tar -xvf file.tar : Extracts the file
tar -cf archive.tar contents/ : Takes everything from contents/ and puts it into archive.tar
gzip -d filename.gz : Decompress the file, extract it

ZIP Files: Extracting .zip files shell command
unzip file.zip

Firewall – iptables commands
iptables -I INPUT -s IPADDRESSHERE -j DROP : This command stops any connections from the IP address
iptables -L : List all rules in iptables
iptables -F : Flushes all iptables rules (clears the firewall)
iptables –save : Saves the currenty ruleset in memory to disk
service iptables restart : Restarts iptables

Apache Shell Commands
httpd -v : Outputs the build date and version of the Apache server.
httpd -l : Lists compiled in Apache modules
httpd status : Only works if mod_status is enabled and shows a page of active connections
service httpd restart : Restarted Apache web server

MySQL Shell Commands
mysqladmin processlist : Shows active mysql connections and queries
mysqladmin drop databasenamehere : Drops/deletes the selected database
mysqladmin create databasenamehere : Creates a mysql database

Restore MySQL Database Shell Command
mysql -u username -p password databasename < databasefile.sql : Restores a MySQL database from databasefile.sql

Backup MySQL Database Shell Command
mysqldump -u username -p password databasename > databasefile.sql : Backup MySQL database to databasefile.sql

kill: terminate a system process
kill -9 PID EG: kill -9 431
kill PID EG: kill 10550
Use top or ps ux to get system PIDs (Process IDs)


10550 pts/3 0:01 /bin/csh
10574 pts/4 0:02 /bin/csh
10590 pts/4 0:09 APP

Each line represents one process, with a process being loosely defined as a running instance of a program. The column headed PID (process ID) shows the assigned process numbers of the processes. The heading COMMAND shows the location of the executed process.

Putting commands together
Often you will find you need to use different commands on the same line. Here are some examples. Note that the | character is called a pipe, it takes date from one program and pipes it to another.
> means create a new file, overwriting any content already there.
>> means tp append data to a file, creating a newone if it doesn not already exist.
< send input from a file back into a command.

grep User /usr/local/apache/conf/httpd.conf |more
This will dump all lines that match User from the httpd.conf, then print the results to your screen one page at a time.

last -a > /root/lastlogins.tmp
This will print all the current login history to a file called lastlogins.tmp in /root/

tail -10000 /var/log/exim_mainlog |grep domain.com |more
This will grab the last 10,000 lines from /var/log/exim_mainlog, find all occurances of domain.com (the period represents ‘anything’,
— comment it out with a so it will be interpretted literally), then send it to your screen page by page.

netstat -an |grep :80 |wc -l
Show how many active connections there are to apache (httpd runs on port 80)

mysqladmin processlist |wc -l
Show how many current open connections there are to mysql

How Web Designers Give Away Their Time (Without Realizing It)

By Eric Karkovack on July 16th, 2019Freelance

Many people outside of the industry are surprised to find out that web designers are just like them. We need to eat, have a roof over our heads and a shiny new phone in our pockets every six months or so. All kidding aside, we are indeed running a business and need to make a living.

Only, sometimes it doesn’t feel that way. For those of us who don’t come from a business background, there is a tendency to become a bit too casual. And working at home only encourages this behavior.

This can be beneficial in that it allows us to build the type of atmosphere where creativity can blossom. But on the downside, a casual approach could mean that we’re leaving a significant amount of money on the table. Even worse is that it may not even occur to us that we’re doing so.

In that spirit, let’s look at some common situations where we are essentially giving our time away. To be clear, this is not to advocate for charging good clients for every little thing. Rather, it’s more about raising awareness and ensuring that we’re not being taken advantage of. Now, let’s get to it!

The Freelance Designer Toolbox
Unlimited Downloads: 500,000+ Web Templates, Themes, Plugins & Design Assets


Technical Support

Once you hand off a website to your client, it’s only a matter of time before they run into an issue or have a question. That’s to be expected. And, if you haven’t already sold them on a support package, it can also turn into a revenue-draining black hole.

While it hardly seems fair to charge for something as simple as a five- or ten-minute email exchange, these incidents do start to add up. What’s worse is that it only takes one technically-challenged or scope-expanding client to unintentionally eat up your time. This is time that you could otherwise use to, you know, make money.

There’s nothing wrong with giving away the occasional freebie. It’s a small gesture that can keep your client relationships strong. But you do need to set limits, either by informing clients from the very beginning or once your arbitrary threshold has been crossed. This will allow you to both be a web superhero and avoid taking a loss on support.

A life preserver floating in water.

Acting as a Researcher/Liaison

So much of our job these days is to work with third-party software and services. Plugins, web hosts, APIs and code libraries make up significant portions of a project.

But the part that we don’t often think about is the amount of time spent researching these various items. That can include anything from searching the web, comparing options to chatting with sales or support representatives to get our questions answered. And when something goes wrong, we are often the ones who deal with it on behalf of a client.

While a project is in the development phase, you might consider this as just a part of your fees – fair enough. But the role of liaison doesn’t end once the site launches.

Indeed, there can be a great deal of time (and stress) associated with relaying communications between an outside service and your client. The back-and-forth shouldn’t be forgotten when it comes to billing.

Woman browsing a website.

Giving Advice

It often seems that, because web designers are technically-skilled, we get asked for help and advice regarding all sorts of subjects. Usually, they’re not at all related to web design.

People get in touch to ask (in no particular order): How to use their iPhone, what their email password is, how to get their email on their iPhone, how to open a specific type of file, will the new iPhone be worth it and…you get the idea.

Again, there is a fine line. You don’t want to come off as some sort of a rude miser, but you don’t want to go on endlessly answering questions unrelated to your actual job. It may in fact be the last thing you want to do, especially when you’re busy with more pressing matters.

On the other hand, it might not be wise to charge for these types of questions (it may inadvertently bring you more of them). Perhaps the best tact is to simply leave these questions hanging until you have some extra time to deal with them.

Men sitting at a table and having a discussion.

Writing Proposals

There are some web professionals who charge for writing proposals. This can be a smart way to attract potential clients who are both serious and willing to pay for quality. Still, this practice seems to be the exception more than the rule.

Proposals can be significant work and do take up precious time, no doubt. But the hope is that it pays off in the form of a shiny new project to work on.

But then there are those prospective or even existing clients who ask for multiple quotes. They are either “serial” entrepreneurs with lots of big ideas or someone who looks at the same project in a lot of different ways over time. In either case, there is a large time investment on your part that could all be for nothing.

This leads to a pretty serious business decision. If you find that you’re losing lots of time due to writing proposals, maybe a new strategy needs to be put in place. Or, it might be that a couple of the worst offenders need to be put in their place.

Man signing a document.

Be Mindful of Your Time

As the old saying goes, time is money. And while money certainly isn’t the only thing that counts, the situations above could be getting in your way when it comes to earning some.

That’s why it’s important to track how much time you spend performing these tasks for free. Keep a tally of what you do, who you’re doing it for and the amount of time spent. You might be surprised at how much you’re giving away.

In response, it might be worth considering putting policies in place that protect you from overreaching clients – not to mention your own good will. Doing so can help to ensure that you’re being fairly compensated for your efforts.

Membership Plugins in 2019: Pros and Cons

membership solutionsWhat to Look for in a WordPress Membership Plugin

The exact features that you should look for obviously depend on your specific needs. But before I dig into the best WordPress membership plugins, I think it’s helpful to highlight some of the general features that most membership sites will need.

Paying attention to how the plugins in this list address these features can help you shape your search:

  • Content restriction options – can the plugin restrict content in the way that you want? Can you restrict entire taxonomies? Custom post types? Parts of content?
  • Content dripping – you’ll likely have situations where you don’t want to make all your restricted content available right away. Content dripping lets you “drip” it out on a set schedule.
  • Payment options/gateways – does the plugin support the payment gateway(s) that you want to use? Can you set up automatic recurring subscriptions? Is it easy to refund people if you have to?
  • Automatic account upgrades/downgrades – you definitely don’t want to have to manually intervene every time someone wants to upgrade or downgrade their account. A good membership plugin should handle this for you, including an option to prorate a user’s payment.
  • Group memberships – if you want to sell group memberships (like to an entire corporation), make sure your chosen plugin offers that functionality.
  • Free trials, coupons, discounts – if you want to offer special deals or coupons, make sure your chosen plugin can get the job done. The same applies to free trials.
  • Affiliate program – do you want to create your own affiliate program?
  • Price – this is pretty self-explanatory, but you’ll see a wide range of prices, and this might play an important role in your decision depending on your budget.

The 6 Best WordPress Membership Plugins in 2019

For each plugin, I’ll give you a brief introduction to its key features, as well as its pros and cons.

1. MemberPress – $149+

MemberPress is a popular WordPress membership plugin with a deep feature list at an accessible price point.

There’s no free version, but the price is competitive for what it offers, especially in comparison to other options.

Key Features

  • Unlimited subscription levels, along with unlimited pricing pages
  • Lots of options for restricting content, including everything from restricting entire taxonomies to using shortcodes to restrict specific content
  • Content dripping
  • Flexible coupon functionality
  • Integrates with bbPress to create member forums
  • Integrates with Affiliate Royale to help you create an affiliate program. It also includes access to Affiliate Royale on higher tiers


  • Has all the functionality most membership sites will need
  • Competitively priced at $149


  • They use fake evergreen pricing to create false urgency, which isn’t very honest in my opinion. The real list price is $149, not $298 – you’re not getting a special deal.

2. Paid Memberships Pro – Free to $297+

Paid Memberships Pro is a flexible WordPress membership plugin that comes in a free core version at WordPress.org, as well as heaps of free and premium add-ons that you can use to add all kinds of functionality.

By the numbers at WordPress.org, Paid Memberships Pro is active on 80,000+ sites, making it one of the most popular membership plugins. Its 4.2-star rating is ok, but not as good as some other options on this list.

Key Features

  • 14+ free add-ons and 64+ premium add-ons for all kinds of functionality
  • Unlimited membership levels
  • Members can manage their own subscriptions and upgrade/downgrade
  • Flexible content restriction
  • Content dripping
  • 6 different payment gateways
  • Flexible billing – collect recurring subscriptions, charge one-time setup fees, offer free or discounted trials, prorated payments, etc.
  • Lots of integrations for Zapier, WooCommerce, bbPress, BuddyPress, and more


  • The core version is available for free at WordPress.org
  • Huge range of add-ons give you a ton of flexibility for setting up your site
  • Has its own free Memberlite WordPress theme that you can use


  • Pricey if you need the paid add-ons, with the cheapest plan starting at $297

3. Restrict Content Pro – Free to $99+

Restrict Content Pro is a freemium WordPress membership plugin from the same developer as the popular Easy Digital Downloads and AffiliateWP plugins.

It has a very basic free version available at WordPress.org, but most people will need the Pro version for a serious membership site. Depending on the functionality that you need, it can be one of the more affordable options on this list.

Key Features

  • Create unlimited restriction levels
  • Multiple content restriction options
  • Can create one-time or recurring plans
  • Support for major payment gateways, including Stripe, PayPal, and Authorize.Net
  • Customer dashboard for self-management, including prorated upgrades and downgrades
  • Group accounts
  • Discount codes
  • Integrates with AffiliateWP plugin if you want to create an affiliate program
  • Integrates with WooCommerce and Easy Digital Downloads


  • From a well-known developer with other successful products (helps ensure future development)
  • Has clean, extensible code
  • Supports all the important core functionality that a membership site needs


  • Members cannot have multiple concurrent subscriptions

4. LearnDash – $159+

LearnDash is more of a learning management system than a generalized WordPress membership plugin, but given that a significant chunk of people use a membership site to deliver course content, it still deserves a place on this list.

Unlike many other LMS plugins, it still includes built-in payments and membership management, which makes it one of the best options for creating paid courses.

Key Features

  • Create online courses, complete with progress indicators, quizzes, assignments, etc.
  • Drag-and-drop course builder makes it really easy to set up courses
  • Built-in payment functionality that supports one-time and recurring payments
  • Option to sell membership access to all your courses, or create course bundles
  • Content dripping
  • Private or public course forums
  • Certificates and badges for gamification


  • Great for online courses
  • Has more advanced LMS functionality that other generalized membership plugins don’t offer
  • Has integrated payments, which not all LMS plugins offer


  • Not a good option if you aren’t planning to offer online courses. This isn’t really a con…just a fact about where LearnDash focuses its features.

5. Paid Member Subscriptions – Free to $69+

Paid Member Subscriptions is a solid membership plugin that has a viable free version at WordPress.org, as well as a premium version with a lot more functionality.

According to WordPress.org, it’s active on over 10,000 sites with a stellar 4.8-star rating on over 110 reviews.

Key Features

  • Create unlimited subscription levels, including fixed-period memberships
  • Multiple subscription levels per user
  • Flexible content restriction options, including support for custom post types
  • Create one-time or recurring subscriptions, including an option to offer free trials or charge one-time sign-up fees. There’s also a “pay what you want” feature
  • Discount codes
  • Content dripping
  • WooCommerce and bbPress integrations
  • AffiliateWP integration if you want to create an affiliate program


  • Has a free version at WordPress.org
  • The premium version is still one of the most affordable options on this list
  • Has most of the important core features you’ll need


  • No group membership plans, though not every site will need that feature

6. WooCommerce Memberships – $149+

As the name suggests, WooCommerce Memberships adds membership site functionality to WooCommerce.

This approach makes it an especially good option if you want to create a group purchasing site or some other type of membership site rooted in eCommerce.

Key Features

  • Create unlimited membership levels
  • Content dripping
  • Only supports one-time payment plans by default, but you can integrate it with WooCommerce Subscriptions to create recurring plans
  • Offer better WooCommerce shipping options to members (e.g. members get free shipping)
  • Connect membership plans to WooCommerce products or sell them as standalone products
  • Tons of payment gateway options because you can use any WooCommerce gateway
  • Special WooCommerce restriction options that let you restrict who can see products or just who can purchase products.


  • Using WooCommerce as the base means you can benefit from the huge WooCommerce extension ecosystem
  • Has some nice features for integrating membership functionality into your eCommerce store. E.g. free shipping for members


  • Can get pricey because you’ll probably need to pair it with other extensions, like WooCommerce Subscriptions. Additionally, WooCommerce no longer offers renewal discounts
  • Not really a con, but the fact that it’s based on WooCommerce might turn some people off

How to Choose the Best WordPress Membership Plugin for Your Needs

There’s no single plugin that’s best for all scenarios, so the plugin that you choose will depend on your unique situation.

However, we can run through some scenarios to help you decide…

If you want access to the absolute most functionality/flexibility, I think the winner is Paid Memberships Pro. Though it’s a little pricier than the other plugins at $297, you get access to so many add-ons that give you a lot of flexibility.

If that’s a little bit out of your budget but you still want deep functionality, MemberPress and Restrict Content Pro both also offer stellar feature lists at lower price points – $149 for MemberPress and $99 for Restrict Content Pro.

If you want the best free membership plugin, then I think Paid Memberships Pro is also a good option there (4.2-star rating). Paid Member Subscriptions also offers a solid free product that you should consider (4.8-star rating). Based on the WordPress.org ratings, people seem to be a little happier with Paid Member Subscriptions, though this obviously depends on your specific needs.

If you’re specifically looking to create and market online courses, then LearnDash might be the best option for you because of its dedicated LMS functionality.

And if you’re already running a WooCommerce store, or like the idea of using WooCommerce as your foundation, then WooCommerce Memberships might be more your speed.



Found on https://wphacks.com/, author:  Colin Newcomer

Amazing big data sources

Free Data Source: Government

  1. Data.gov: It is the first stage and acts as a portal to all sorts of amazing information on everything from climate to crime freely by the US Government.
  2. Data.gov.uk: There are datasets from all UK central departments and a number of other public sector and local authorities. It acts as a portal to all sorts of information on everything, including business and economy, crime and justice, defence, education, environment, government, health, society and transportation.
  3. US. Census Bureau: The website is about the government-informed statistics on the lives of US citizens including population, economy, education, geography, and more.
  4. The CIA World Factbook: Facts on every country in the world; focuses on history, government, population, economy, energy, geography, communications, transportation, military, and transnational issues of 267 countries.
  5. Socrata: Socrata is a mission-driven software company that is another interesting place to explore government-related data with some visualization tools built-in. Its data as a service has been adopted by more than 1200 government agencies for open data, performance management and data-driven government.
  6. European Union Open Data Portal: It is the single point of access to a growing range of data from the institutions and other bodies of the European Union. The data boosts includes economic development within the EU and transparency within the EU institutions, including geographic, geopolitical and financial data, statistics, election results, legal acts, and data on crime, health, the environment, transport and scientific research. They could be reused in different databases and reports. And more, a variety of digital formats are available from the EU institutions and other EU bodies. The portal provides a standardised catalogue, a list of apps and web tools reusing these data, a SPARQL endpoint query editor and rest API access, and tips on how to make best use of the site.
  7. Canada Open Datais a pilot project with many government and geospatial datasets. It could help you explore how the Government of Canada creates greater transparency, accountability, increases citizen engagement, and drives innovation and economic opportunities through open data, open information, and open dialogue.
  8. Datacatalogs.org: It offers open government data from US, EU, Canada, CKAN, and more.
  9. U.S. National Center for Education Statistics: The National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) is the primary federal entity for collecting and analyzing data related to education in the U.S. and other nations.
  10. UK Data Service: The UK Data Service collection includes major UK government-sponsored surveys, cross-national surveys, longitudinal studies, UK census data, international aggregate, business data, and qualitative data.

Free Data Source: Crime

  1. Uniform Crime Reporting: The UCR Program has been the starting place for law enforcement executives, students, researchers, members of the media, and the public seeking information on crime in the US.
  2. FBI Crime Statistics: Statistical crime reports and publications detailing specific offenses and outlining trends to understand crime threats at both local and national levels.
  3. Bureau of Justice Statistics: Information on anything related to U.S. justice system, including arrest-related deaths, census of jail inmates, national survey of DNA crime labs, surveys of law enforcement gang units, etc.
  4. National Sex Offender Search: It is an unprecedented public safety resource that provides the public with access to sex offender data nationwide. It presents the most up-to-date information as provided by each Jurisdiction.

Free Data Source: Health

  1. U.S. Food & Drug Administration: Here you will find a compressed data file of the Drugs@FDA database. Drugs@FDA, is updated daily, this data file is updated once per week, on Tuesday.
  2. UNICEF: UNICEF gathers evidence on the situation of children and women around the world. The data sets include accurate, nationally representative data from household surveys and other sources.
  3. World Health Organisation:  statistics concerning nutrition, disease and health in more than 150 countries.
  4. Healthdata.gov: 125 years of US healthcare data including claim-level Medicare data, epidemiology and population statistics.
  5. NHS Health and Social Care Information Centre: Health data sets from the UK National Health Service. The organization produces more than 260 official and national statistical publications. This includes national comparative data for secondary uses, developed from the long-running Hospital Episode Statistics which can help local decision makers to improve the quality and efficiency of frontline care.

Free Data Source: Financial and Economic Data

  1. World Bank Open Data: Education statistics about everything from finances to service delivery indicators around the world.
  2. IMF Economic Data: An incredibly useful source of information that includes global financial stability reports, regional economic reports, international financial statistics, exchange rates, directions of trade, and more.
  3. UN Comtrade Database: Free access to detailed global trade data with visualizations. UN Comtrade is a repository of official international trade statistics and relevant analytical tables. All data is accessible through API.
  4. Global Financial Data: With data on over 60,000 companies covering 300 years, Global Financial Data offers a unique source to analyze the twists and turns of the global economy.
  5. Google Finance: Real-time stock quotes and charts, financial news, currency conversions, or tracked portfolios.
  6. Google Public Data Explorer: Google’s Public Data Explorer provides public data and forecasts from a range of international organizations and academic institutions including the World Bank, OECD, Eurostat and the University of Denver. These can be displayed as line graphs, bar graphs, cross sectional plots or on maps.
  7. U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis: U.S. official macroeconomic and industry statistics, most notably reports about the gross domestic product (GDP) of the United States and its various units. They also provide information about personal income, corporate profits, and government spending in their National Income and Product Accounts (NIPAs).
  8. Financial Data Finder at OSU: Plentiful links to anything related to finance, no matter how obscure, including World Development Indicators Online, World Bank Open Data, Global Financial Data, International Monetary Fund Statistical Databases, and EMIS Intelligence.
  9. National Bureau of Economic Research: Macro data, industry data, productivity data, trade data, international finance, data, and more.
  10. U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission: Quarterly datasets of extracted information from exhibits to corporate financial reports filed with the Commission.
  11. Visualizing Economics: Data visualizations about the economy.
  12. Financial Times: The Financial Times provides a broad range of information, news and services for the global business community.

Free Data Source: Marketing and Social Media

  1. Amazon API: Browse Amazon Web Services’ Public Data Sets by category for a huge wealth of information. Amazon API Gateway allows developers to securely connect mobile and web applications to APIs that run on Amazon Web(AWS) Lambda, Amazon EC2, or other publicly addressable web services that are hosted outside of AWS.
  2. American Society of Travel Agents: ASTA is the world’s largest association of travel professionals. It provides members information including travel agents and the companies whose products they sell such as tours, cruises, hotels, car rentals, etc.
  3. Social Mention: Social Mention is a social media search and analysis platform that aggregates user-generated content from across the universe into a single stream of information.
  4. Google Trends: Google Trends shows how often a particular search-term is entered relative to the total search-volume across various regions of the world in various languages.
  5. Facebook API: Learn how to publish to and retrieve data from Facebook using the Graph API.
  6. Twitter API: The Twitter Platform connects your website or application with the worldwide conversation happening on Twitter.
  7. Instagram API: The Instagram API Platform can be used to build non-automated, authentic, high-quality apps and services.
  8. Foursquare API: The Foursquare API gives you access to our world-class places database and the ability to interact with Foursquare users and merchants.
  9. HubSpot: A large repository of marketing data. You could find the latest marketing stats and trends here. It also provides tools for social media marketing, content management, web analytics, landing pages and search engine optimization.
  10. Moz: Insights on SEO that includes keyword research, link building, site audits, and page optimization insights in order to help companies to have a better view of the position they have on search engines and how to improve their ranking.
  11. Content Marketing Institute: The latest news, studies, and research on content marketing.

Free Data Source: Journalism and Media

  1. The New York Times Developer Network– Search Times articles from 1851 to today, retrieving headlines, abstracts and links to associated multimedia. You can also search book reviews, NYC event listings, movie reviews, top stories with images and more.
  2. Associated Press API: The AP Content API allows you to search and download content using your own editorial tools, without having to visit AP portals. It provides access to images from AP-owned, member-owned and third-party, and videos produced by AP and selected third-party.
  3. Google Books Ngram Viewer: It is an online search engine that charts frequencies of any set of comma-delimited search strings using a yearly count of n-grams found in sources printed between 1500 and 2008 in Google’s text corpora.
  4. Wikipedia Database: Wikipedia offers free copies of all available content to interested users.
  5. FiveThirtyEight: It is a website that focuses on opinion poll analysis, politics, economics, and sports blogging. The data and code on Github is behind the stories and interactives at FiveThirtyEight.
  6. Google Scholar: Google Scholar is a freely accessible web search engine that indexes the full text or metadata of scholarly literature across an array of publishing formats and disciplines. It includes most peer-reviewed online academic journals and books, conference papers, theses and dissertations, preprints, abstracts, technical reports, and other scholarly literature, including court opinions and patents.

Free Data Source: Real Estate

  1. Castles: Castles are a successful, privately owned independent agency. Established in 1981, they offer a comprehensive service incorporating residential sales, letting and management, and surveys and valuations.
  2. Realestate.com: RealEstate.com serves as the ultimate resource for first-time home buyers, offering easy-to-understand tools and expert advice at every stage in the process.
  3. Gumtree: Gumtree is the first site for free classifieds ads in the UK. Buy and sell items, cars, properties, and find or offer jobs in your area is all available on the website.
  4. James Hayward: It provides an innovative database approach to residential sales, lettings & management.
  5. Lifull Homes: Japan’s property website.
  6. Immobiliare.it: Italy’s property website.
  7. Subito: Italy’s property website.
  8. Immoweb: Belgium’s leading property website.

Free Data Source: Business Directory and Review

  1. LinkedIn: LinkedIn is a business- and employment-oriented social networking service that operates via websites and mobile apps. It has 500 million members in 200 countries and you could find the business directory here.
  2. OpenCorporates: OpenCorporates is the largest open database of companies and company data in the world, with in excess of 100 million companies in a similarly large number of jurisdictions. Our primary goal is to make information on companies more usable and more widely available for the public benefit, particularly to tackle the use of companies for criminal or anti-social purposes, for example corruption, money laundering and organised crime.
  3. Yellowpages: The original source to find and connect with local plumbers, handymen, mechanics, attorneys, dentists, and more.
  4. Craigslist: Craigslist is an American classified advertisements website with sections devoted to jobs, housing, personals, for sale, items wanted, services, community, gigs, résumés, and discussion forums.
  5. GAF Master Elite Contractor: Founded in 1886, GAF has become North America’s largest manufacturer of commercial and residential roofing (Source: Fredonia Group study). Our success in growing the company to nearly $3 billion in sales has been a result of our relentless pursuit of quality, combined with industry-leading expertise and comprehensive roofing solutions. Jim Schnepper is the President of GAF, an operating subsidiary of Standard Industries. When you are looking to protect the things you treasure most, here are just some of the reasons why we believe you should choose GAF.
  6. CertainTeed: You could find contractors, remodelers, installers or builders in the US or Canada on your residential or commercial project here.
  7. Companies in California: All information about companies in California.
  8. Manta: Manta is one of the largest online resources that deliver products, services and educational opportunities. The Manta directory boasts millions of unique visitors every month who search comprehensive database for individual businesses, industry segments and geographic-specific listings.
  9. EU-Startups: Directory about startups in EU.
  10. Kansas Bar Association: Directory for lawyers. The Kansas Bar Association (KBA) was founded in 1882 as a voluntary association for dedicated legal professionals and has more than 7,000 members, including lawyers, judges, law students, and paralegals.

Free Data Source: Other Portal Websites

  1. Capterra: Directory about business software and reviews.
  2. Monster: Data source for jobs and career opportunities.
  3. Glassdoor: Directory about jobs and information about inside scoop on companies with employee reviews, personalized salary tools, and more.
  4. The Good Garage Scheme: Directory about car service, MOT or car repair.
  5. OSMOZ: Information about fragrance.
  6. Octoparse: A free data extraction tool to collect all the web data mentioned above online.

Do you know some great data sources? Contact us at support@octoparse.com to let us know and help us share the data love.

More Related Sources:

Top 30 Big Data Tools for Data Analysis

Top 30 Free Web Scraping Software


Kudos :  Aries Chau, Octoparse.


Techniques to restart Apache without rebooting CentOS Linux server

  • When updating the Web server’s configuration file.
  • When httpd itself becomes hopelessly confused and unresponsive.
  • To test other services in isolation.

The trick is stop & start Apache without having to reboot the hosted CentOS Linux server. To get started, you’ll need a dedicated or hosted virtual private server (VPS). From there, you can employ the service command. Read on for specifics.

Why the service command is superior

Although there are at least a half-dozen different ways to restart httpd, I suggest using the service command. The main benefit when it comes to a CentOS server: service will continue to work for you if you migrate to a more specialized http server such as nginx.

Interestingly, the Apache httpd documentation uses the apachectlcommand. However, apachectl also confuses some system administrators because the executable’s location is more variable than /sbin/service.

The CentOS documentation offers both apachectl and service as good options.

How to restart Apache on a dedicated or hosted VPS

There’s not a lot to rebooting Apache httpd on a dedicated or hosted virtual private server (VPS) based on the popular CentOS distribution. But I do suggest following these specific steps to avoid future fumbles.

1. Obtain root access using sudo.

sudo means “superuser do” and it allows access to commands require superuser (root) privileges. Because you’re not logging in with root (please don’t!), you need sudo to give root-level privileges to service, which requires root access.

sudo /sbin/service httpd graceful

The service command is used to start, stop or modify services, such as httpd.

2. Use graceful to begin closing child processes.

The aforementioned graceful parameter tells httpd to begin the restarting process by first signaling all of its child processes to complete their current tasks. After all the child processes (the ones that are serving up http requests) have finished their tasks, they will close; if any child processes aren’t currently serving requests, they will close immediately.

3. Restart the Apache httpd server.

Once all of the child processes have closed, the Apache httpd server will restart, including rereading its configuration file to ensure a clean and fully updated start. In nearly all cases, the entire shutdown/restart process will cause only a few milliseconds of downtime.

How to use the stop command instead of graceful

graceful is not the only way to restart httpd with service; you also have the option to use the stop command:

sudo /sbin/service httpd stop

Keep in mind that stop attempts to terminate all child processes immediately, which could leave end-users hanging. My preference is graceful — a better choice for your business-class server — because it’s friendlier than abruptly terminating child processes that are serving customers. Many admins and especially programmers use stop to stop their server, often because they don’t know that graceful even exists.

1. Restart Apache httpd with the stop command.

If you do use stop, follow it with the following to restart the httpdserver.

sudo /sbin/service httpd start

2. Consider combining commands.

You can combine both those commands into one; where Apache httpd will relaunch once all the child processes have terminated.

sudo /sbin/service httpd restart

Whichever route you choose, you should find the process pretty clear cut. If not, feel free to submit questions and feedback in the comments section below.


Thanks go to author: Cameron Laird 

Spotify: 19 trucos de Xataca para aprovecharlo al máximo

spotifyVisto en Xataca en abril 2018.Imprescindible

Spotify es una de las plataformas líderes en el sector del streaming musical, y una de las pocas grandes que sigue atreviéndose a publicitar su modalidad gratuita sin preocuparse de que afecte al crecimiento de la de pago. Tan acostumbrados estamos a su aplicación que es posible algunos nos hayamos conformado con usarla de forma básica sin pararnos a mirar todas las posibilidades que ofrece.

Si eres uno de los que le da un uso básico a Spotify y quieres sacarle el máximo partido posible a los diez euros mensuales que pagas por ella, hoy vamos a ofrecerte un pequeño repertorio de trucos para hacerlo. Tenemos de todo, desde cómo convertir Spotify en un karaoke hasta cómo descargarte tu colección de discos favoritos para que no necesites recurrir al P2P nunca más.

No dejes escapar tu recopilación semanal personalizada

No dejes escapar tu recopilación semanal personalizada

El verano pasado Spotify lanzaba Descubrimiento Semanal, un sistema de listas de reproducción semanales personalizadas para cada usuario. Estas listas están sorprendiendo por lo mucho que aciertan con los gustos de cada uno, por lo que si aún no las sueles escuchar estas perdiendo una buena oportunidad descubrir y redescubrir música de tu gusto.

  • Para acceder entra a Spotify y ve a la sección Explorar.
  • Busca el submenú Descubrir, y en Mejores recomendaciones para ti.
  • La reconocerás porque se llama Descubrimiento semanal y utilizará tu foto de perfil.

Playlist infinita basada en tu tema favoritos

Ir A Radio De La Cancion

Si hay una canción que te encanta y quieres escuchar más temas similares, haz click derecho en la canción y elige la opción Ir a radio de la canción. Se te generará automáticamente una lista de reproducción infinita con canciones relacionadas a la que estabas escuchando, de manera que puedas pasarte toda la tarde con un tipo de música concreta sin tener que escoger tú las canciones.

Si eres premium busca la máxima calidad musical

Si eres premium busca la máxima calidad musical

Si eres un usuario gratuito no tendrás mucho entre lo que elegir, pero cuando estás pagando por ser premium en Spotify puedes disponer de todo su catálogo musical en su configuración de calidad de sonido extrema. En ella Spotify utiliza el formato OGG Vorbis a 320 Kbps, y puedes elegir tanto la calidad de la música en streaming como la de las canciones que te descargas.

  • En PC haz click sobre Editar y en Preferencias.
  • Ahora sólo tienes que activar la opción Streaming de alta calidad.
  • En la aplicación móvil entra en Configuración y baja hasta la opción de Calidad de música.
  • Elige la mejor calidad disponible tanto en el desplegable de Streamingcomo en el de Descargar.

Descarga discos y listas de reproducción a tu móvil

Descarga discos y listas de reproducción a tu móvil

¿Descargarte música por P2P para poder llevar tus discos favoritos en el móvil? Eso es tan 2012. Spotify te permite descargar no sólo tus listas de reproducción, sino desde hace unos meses también tus discos favoritos.

  • Si quieres descargar un disco en tu móvil sólo tienes que entrar en él.
  • Si pulsas en Guardar quedará disponible en la sección Tu música.
  • Tendrás que activar la opción Disponible sin conexión para descargarlo al móvil.
  • Las canciones guardadas tendrán un icono de una flecha apuntando hacia abajo de color verde.
  • Para descargar una Playlist, entra en ella y activa también la opción Disponible sin conexión.

Descarga la música en la microSD de tu móvil

Descarga la música en la microSD de tu móvil

Si eres usuario de Android quizá prefieras aprovechar el espacio de tu tarjeta microSD en vez de ocupar el almacenamiento interno de tu móvil a la hora de descargar música. Recientemente Spotify también ha implementado esta opción, aunque si ya has empezado a descargar música en la memoria interna tendrás que dar algún paso de más para activarla.

  • Entra en la Configuración de la app de Android, y baja hasta la sección Otros para hacer click sobre la opción Almacenamiento.
  • Aquí podrás elegir entre utilizar el almacenamiento del dispositivo o la tarjeta SD.
  • Si ya has empezado a usar el del dispositivo, antes de cambiar tendrás que volver al menú anterior.
  • Allí tendrás que darle a la opción de Eliminar la caché y datos para borrar todas tus descargas.
  • Ahora, antes de volver a ponerte a descargar entra de nuevo en Almacenamiento y elije la SD.

Oculta tu actividad, que no sepan lo que escuchas

Oculta tu actividad, que no sepan lo que escuchas

Si eres un auténtico aventurero musical seguro que en algún momento has escuchado cosas de las que te avergüenzas. Si no quieres que esto repercuta en la imagen que los demás tienen de ti puedes estar tranquilo, y ya que Spotify te permite ocultar tu actividad.

  • Ve a la pestaña Archivo o haz click en la flecha junto a tu nombre de usuario de la aplicación de escritorio.
  • Activa la opción Sesión Privada para que nadie vea lo que escuchas.
  • En la app móvil verás la opción en la sección de *Configuración.

Encuentra lo que escuchaste ayer con el historial


No todos los días estamos de humor para dedicarnos a ir añadiendo a los favoritos o cualquier lista de reproducción lo que escuchamos. Por eso mismo, hurgar en tu historial de reproducciones puede ayudarte a no perderle la pista a esa canción que tanto te gustó ayer, pero de cuyo título no terminas de acordarte.

  • Sólo puedes acceder al historial dlesde el cliente para Windows y Mac.
  • Haz click en la sección Cola abajo, junto a la barra temporal de la canción.
  • Verás una pestaña en la que pone Historial. Es ahí.

Importa archivos locales y de otros servicios

Importa archivos locales y de otros servicios

Independientemente de su amplio catálogo musical, el reproductor de Spotify es lo suficientemente atractivo y funcional como para pensar en utilizarlo para escuchar tus otras colecciones musicales. Para ello tendrás la opción de importar tanto tus archivos locales como los que tengas en otros servicios musicales como iTunes.

  • En el cliente de escritorio pincha en Editar y luego ve a Preferencias.
  • Ve a la sección Archivos Locales.
  • Te aparecerán diferentes opciones depende de las aplicaciones que tengas instaladas.
  • También aparecerán los directorios locales donde tengas música.
  • Si no encuentras uno, pulsa sobre Añadir una fuente para agregar directorios de música.
  • Sólo tienes que activar la opción que quieras, y en el menú de Archivos Locales de la izquierda te aparecerán todos tus archivos.

Envía correcciones de los datos de una canción

Editar Ficha De Cancion

Nadie conoce tus canciones favoritas como tú, y es posible que entre los millones de temas de Spotify te encuentres con alguno que esté mal etiquetada o tenga datos incorrectos. Haz click derecho sobre la canción, y elige la opción Sugerir un cambio para enviarle a Spotify una ficha corregida para que miren en ella posibles datos que tengan que corregir.

Al pulsar sobre esa opción irás a una web en la que tienes la ficha completa de la canción. En ella podrás hacer todos los cambios que veas adecuados, y esos cambios le llegarán a Spotify para que los revisen. Puedes cambiar desde títulos y nombres de artista hasta géneros o avisos de letras explícitas. Eso sí, si Spotify no considera que tus correcciones sean adecuadas puede ignorarlas.

Pasa la reproducción a tu móvil o a Chromecast

Pasa la reproducción a tu móvil o a Chromecast

¿Estás escuchando música en tu móvil y al llegar a casa quieres llevar la reproducción directamente a tu ordenador? Lo estás haciendo en el PC y prefieres que suene en el Chromecast o cualquier otro dispositivo que tengas conectado? Lo has adivinad, Spotify tiene una opción para poder hacerlo con un sólo click.

  • En el PC sólo tienes que hacer click sobre la opción Dispositivos disponibles y elegir en el que quieres que empiece a sonar la música.
  • En la aplicación móvil, abajo del todo te aparecerá el dispositivo en el que suena la música.
  • Sólo haz click sobre el sitio en el que lo pone y elige un nuevo dispositivo.*
  • Cuando lleves la música a otro dispositivo, recuerda que la música dejará de sonar donde estabas escuchándola.

Utiliza tu móvil como mando a distancia

Utiliza tu móvil como mando a distancia

Vale, lo que quieres no es escuchar la música en tu móvil sino utilizarlo para controlar la reproducción de tu PC o equipo musical sincronizado. Como acabas de ver la aplicación móvil no cambia automáticamente dónde estás escuchando música, por lo que mientras la estés escuchando en otro lado el móvil la utilizará por defecto como mando a distancia.

Recuperar una Playlist eliminada

Recuperar una Playlist eliminada

¿Has borrado sin querer esa lista de reproducción que llevas semanas configurando y han escuchado tu lamento hasta los del pueblo de al lado? Pues tranquilo, porque aunque en las aplicaciones no aparezca, Spotify tiene una opción que te permitirá recuperar cualquier Playlist eliminada.

  • Entra a Tu Cuenta de Spotify a través de la web.
  • Ve a la opción de Recuperar Playlist.
  • Aquí verás el nombre de todas las listas que has eliminado y la fecha en la que lo hiciste.
  • En cada una de ellas verás la opción Recuperar, sólo pulsa sobre ella y la recuperarás.

Organiza tus Playlists con carpetas

Organiza tus Playlists con carpetas

Déjame adivinar, tienes varias listas de reproducción en Spotify pero todas ellas caóticamente desorganizadas en la sección Playlist de tu aplicación. ¿Sabías que puedes crear carpetas para poner un poco de orden y organizarte mejor? Eso sí, es algo que no podrás hacer en las aplicaciones móviles, sólo en la de escritorio.

  • Haz click derecho sobre cualquier zona, incluso sobre las propias listas de reproducción, en la sección Playlist.
  • Verás que junto a Crear playlist *te aparecerá la opción Crear carpeta**.
  • También podrás hacerlo con Ctrl + Shift + N.
  • Sólo tendrás que crear las que quieras e ir arrastrando cada Playlist a la carpeta que quieras.
  • También podrás crear carpetas dentro de carpetas.
  • Si creas una nueva Playlist y la llamas , crearás un separador.

Otras versiones de un mismo disco

Otras versiones de un mismo disco

Algunos discos y singles, sobre todo los pertenecientes al género dl Hip Hop, salen con versiones con y sin censura cuando las letras de las canciones no son recomendables para todos los públicos. Si te gusta mucho un artista seguro que no te quieres perder ni un punto ni una coma de lo que escribe, por lo que Spotify te deja alternar entre las versiones de la canción.

  • En algunas canciones, a la derecha de la información de Copyright aparecerá la opción X novedades más.
  • Si haces click sobre ella te aparecerán otras versiones de un mismos disco, single o canción.

Utiliza Spotify como Karaoke

Letras Spotify

Ya sea porque quieres saber qué es lo que dice exactamente esa canción que tanto te gusta o porque quieres montarte el Karaoke en casa, es posible que quieras que Spotify vuelva a mostrarte las letras como hacía antaño. Musixmatch, empresa que estaba asociada hasta hace unos meses con Spotify para ofrecer las letras, ha decidido crear su propia aplicación ahora que no están integrados con la oficial.

  • Entra en la página oficial de Musixmatch y descarga su aplicación para Windows o Mac.
  • Ejecutala, y nada más empezar te preguntará para qué aplicación la quieres utilizar.
  • Si no dices nada lo detectará automáticamente y empezará a mostrarte las letras. Así de fácil.
  • Puedes elegir entre ver sólo la frase que están diciendo ahora en la canción o la letra completa.

Haz búsquedas más eficientes

Haz búsquedas más eficientes

¿Eres de los que te limitas a buscar al artista que quieres escuchar en Spotify y luego hacer scroll durante media hora hasta llegar a los discos que quieres encontrar? Pues que sepas que hay una manera de optimizar las búsquedas seleccionando además del artista el periodo temporal de sus discos o sus canciones. Sólo tendrás que utilizar modificadores como los de Google.

  • artist:David Bowie para encontrar un artista en concreto.
  • track:”Mi Canción” para encontrar una canción en concreto.
  • album:”Mi Disco” para encontrar un disco en concreto.
  • year:1969 para encontrar canciones de ese año.
  • year:1989-2013 para encontrar canciones en ese periodo de tiempo.
  • year:1989-2013 NOT year:1993 para encontrar canciones en ese periodo de tiempo, excepto las de 1993.
  • Afina tu búsqueda con AND, OR y NOT.
  • genre: para buscar un género en concreto.
  • label: para buscar los discos de una discográfica.
  • isrc: para buscar canciones por su International Standard Recording Code.
  • upc: para buscar discos por su Universal Product Code.
  • tag:new para buscar los últimos discos encontrados.

Comparte, comparte y comparte


¿Has descubierto un temazo espectacular y no puedes esperar a compartirlo con el mundo? Pues Spotify te ofrece varias versiones para hacerlo, desde compartiéndolo directamente en algunas redes sociales hasta creando URLs y códigos de inserción.

  • Sólo tienes que hacer click derecho sobre un disco, canción o lista de reproducción, y pulsa la opción *Compartir.
  • Las primeras opciones son accesos directos a aplicaciones para compartir cosas a través de ellas.
  • Las tres últimas opciones que aparecerán en el menú emergente son opciones avanzadas para hacerlo.
  • Copiar enlace de la canción pone en tu portapapeles un enlace con el que cualquiera podrá acceder directamente a la canción.
  • Copiar código te copia el código de inserción iframe para añadir la canción o el disco a un blog o página web.
  • Copiar URI de Spotify te copia la URI, con la que se abre directamente el archivo en Spotify sin pasos intermedios.
  • Si arrastras una canción desde Spotify hasta una app de mensajería la adjuntarás automáticamente.

Prepara tus viajes con listas de reproducción colaborativas

Prepara tus viajes con listas de reproducción colaborativas

Imagínate que estás organizando un viaje en coche con tus amigos, y que cada uno tenéis diferentes gustos musicales. ¿No sería lo más democrático crear una lista de reproducción con canciones variadas a gusto de todos? Pues esto es algo que podrás hacer utilizando las playlist colaborativas.

  • Crea una lista de reproducción como cualquier otra.
  • Haz click derecho sobre ella y elige la opción de Playlist colaborativa.
  • Sólo tienes que compartir esa lista con quien quieras que pueda añadir canciones.
  • Tranquilo, porque como la playlist no es pública sólo podrá colaborar quien tenga el enlace.

Bonus Track: Atajos de teclado de Spotify

Como no podía ser de otra manera, vamos a terminar esta sección de trucos con una pequeña lista con los atajos de teclado de Spotify. Vamos a ir listando todas las funciones, mostrando en cada una la combinación de teclas que tendrás que utilizar en Windows y en Mac OS X.

  • Crear nueva PlaylistCtrl + N en Windows, Cmd + N en Mac.
  • CortarCtrl + X en Windows, Cmd + X en Mac.
  • CopiarCtrl + C en Windows, Cmd + C en Mac.
  • PegarCtrl + V en Windows, Cmd + V en Mac.
  • BorrarSupr en Windows y Mac.
  • Elegir todoCtrl + A en Windows, Cmd + A en Mac.
  • PausaEspacio en Windows y Mac.
  • Siguiente canciónCtrl + Derecha en Windows, Cmd + Derecha en Mac.
  • Canción anteriorCtrl + Izquierda en Windows, Cmd + Izquierda en Mac.
  • Subir volumenCtrl + Arriba en Windows, Cmd + Arriba en Mac.
  • Bajar volumenCtrl + Abajo en Windows, Cmd + Abajo en Mac.
  • MuteCtrl + Shift + Abajo en Windows, Cmd + Shift + Abajo en Mac.
  • Volumen máximoCtrl + Shift + Arriba en Windows, Cmd + Shift + Arriba en Mac.
  • Ir a AyudaF1 en Windows, Cmd + Shift + ? en Mac.
  • Ir a la barra de búsqueda:Ctrl + L en Windows, Cmd + L o Cmd + Alt + F en Mac.
  • Página anteriorAlt + Izquierda en Windows, Cmd + Alt + Izquierda* o Cmd + [ en Mac.
  • Página siguienteAlt + Derecha en Windows, Cmd + Alt + Derecha o Cmd + ] en Mac.
  • Reproducir selecciónEnter en Windows y Mac.
  • PreferenciasCtrl + P en Windows, Cmd + , en Mac.
  • Cerrar sesiónCtrl + Shift + W en Windows, Cmd + Shift + W en Mac.
  • SalirAlt + F4 en Windows, Cmd + Q en Mac.
  • Ocultar ventanaCmd + H en Mac.
  • Ocultar las ventanas de otras aplicacionesCmd + Alt + H en Mac.
  • Cerrar ventanaCmd + W en Mac.
  • Minimizar ventanaCmd + M en Mac.
  • Restaurar ventanaCmd + Alt + 1 en Mac.

VPNs, Public Spaces And Travel

VPN To Protect My Identity While Travelling?

Think of all the personal information that we deal with online. Think of Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, or even more sensitive data like our messages, Google searches, and our emails. Consider everything we type or click on when we use our computers or cell phones. All of that identity data can be accessed, stored, and traded by our internet providers, the websites themselves, or even companies who have made digital information their trade.

The websites we use, how we use them, and where we use them, are all up for grabs. Have you ever looked at something online, say on Ebay, only to have an advert for that same product on your Facebook?

There are countless stories of online shoppers being advertised the same product they just bought or looked at. And the truth is that it’s hard to find out which corporations know what about us.

What VPNs Do

VPNs disguise all of our traffic – they don’t hide the traffic itself, but they obscure details.

VPNs disguise all of our traffic – they don’t hide the traffic itself, but they obscure details.

By anonymizing locations and identities, VPNs make it look like our online traffic comes from a different place it actually does.

For example, this is how people are able to access US Netflix shows outside of the US – their VPN encrypts the details of their connections. To Netflix, it appears like they are in the US. Therefore they can access location-based services even when it countries that have strict viewership laws like Singapore.

VPNs protect all of our online traffic regardless of its type, including online calls, your emails, your identity, and messages. This is crucial for those traveling into strict countries where the nature of this data might mean you are breaking laws, such as China or Vietnam.

Even Western countries, like Turkey, Spain, and Portugal, limit the websites people can use and the content they can access.

Simple Guide To VPNs

A good way to find the right VPN is to consider where exactly we will need it the most. This allows us to get tailored protection in the country where we’re located and also get us the fastest speed. Simply Google VPNs in the destination country and you’ll find specialized recommendations for VPNs like this list for Turkey.

Understanding how the internet works in technical detail is mind-boggling, but VPNs are usually very straightforward to use. They’re like regular apps for your laptop, phone or tablet. With a few taps, your identity is secure.

Are VPNs Free?

To choose the right VPN, we must first disregard the free ones. I know, I know – but bear with me.

Free VPNs might slow your internet speed to a crawl. More than that, VPNs need maintenance, which means they need money. Free VPNs might earn money by selling your information eventually or using your network for other suspicious activities. Paid VPNs, on the other hand, are usually purchased by subscription for as little as $2 per month or in 6-month packages.

VPNs, Public Spaces And Travel

Travellers should be the first to use a VPN on their phones and laptops. In unfamiliar countries, we have to make use of whatever WiFi we can get, often in public hotspots.

In these spaces, our information is surprisingly open to anyone else also using those networks. Network admins might access our most personal information with alarming ease. VPNs ensure we have an extra layer of defense in unencrypted WiFi zones.

A few dollars seems worth it. We can be assured that our information is safe in foreign countries whose rules and laws we might not know. We all have to make use of public WiFi at some point and it’s essential that we get the protection we need for these spaces, as well as elsewhere in our everyday lives.

For more VPN-related stories and information from us here at Bit Rebels, click here.

Web-Based Color Tools

These tools are all 100% free, so they’re easy to bookmark and reuse time & time again. They can also work for web, mobile, print, or any other medium that needs incredible colors.

1. ColorHexa

colorhexa webapp

Recently I was browsing the web and stumbled onto ColorHexa. It’s by far one of the coolest color tools I’ve ever seen.

This isn’t technically a color generator or a scheme design tool. Instead, it’s an information library on all colors with suggested gradient ideas, related shades, and dozens of color codes(ex: hex, RGB, CMYK, CIE-LAB, HSL and more).

You’ll never find a more complete list of information on color. This is super useful for all designers, including web designers, and it’s a great place to start researching colors for your projects.

2. Colors.css


If you do some research into color psychology you’ll learn how different colors stack together & what sort of mood they give. This plays into contrast for certain types of colors and how they work together.

Every browser comes with default colors that are often too harsh. Colors.css fixes that.

It’s a free CSS library that restyles the default color palette. This means you can use color names like “blue” and “red” with totally different values.

They even have an entire accessibility page full of ideas for matching color schemes that’ll improve readability on your site.

3. ColorPick Eyedropper Extension

colorpick chrome addon

How often do you find a site with a beautiful color scheme? I find amazing sites all the time and it’s difficult to export those colors from the stylesheet.

You can use Chrome DevTools but this requires digging around in the code to pick out the hex colors. Instead you can use the ColorPick Eyedropper extension made exclusively for Google Chrome.

You just click the toggle window in the extensions panel, then hover any color you want to study. This gives you the full hex code along with a “copy” link to copy the exact color to your clipboard.

Pretty cool right? And it’s a free plugin, so there’s nothing to lose by trying it out.

4. Coolors

coolors webapp

The Coolors site is a large color scheme generator. You can find dozens of generators on the web, but this one’s a little different since it supports Adobe programs with its own add-on.

You can also get this as a Chrome extension or even as a custom iOS app for your phone.

Really the true value is in the browser webapp that auto-generates color schemes on the fly. You can then mix & match colors, change settings, adjust for color blindness, and randomize your own schemes based on certain criteria.

It’s a great application, but it comes with a small learning curve. Shouldn’t take you more than 15-20 minutes to figure out how it all works.

5. Ambiance

ambiance color webapp

Ambiance is another color scheme site but it works a little differently. This one pulls color palettes from ColourLovers and displays them in an easy-to-consume style.

This means you’ll need to check the original link on Color Lovers to find more data about any particular scheme.

I still think Ambiance is a handy site to bookmark only because of its usability. This app is way more straightforward to use than Colour Lovers so it’s easier to pair colors together and get them working.

6. Material UI Colors

material ui colors

With a quick Google search you’ll find a bunch of sweet material design tools on the web. They seem never-ending and many of them rely on the color styles typically found in Android apps.

With the Material UI Colors webapp you can find perfect color schemes that match with Google’s material guidelines.

Easily change the tint of all colors with the slider in the top-left corner of the screen. Or randomize your selections to match an existing site’s color choices.

You can also switch between hex and RGB depending on whatever format you want. A great app for material design lovers.

7. Color Supply

color supply webapp

The Color Supply website is pretty unique but also very strange. It gives you a bunch of interesting color tools for matching color schemes, picking the foregrounds & backgrounds, plus different ways to compare how those colors would look on a page.

But this doesn’t have any guide or specific purpose. It acts like a color scheme generator that you have to just kind of learn as you go.

It will output different colors with hex codes near the bottom of the page to copy. Plus it’ll show you how those colors work in a gradient, in icons, and with text. Nice tool but it comes with an awkward learning curve.

8. Color Safe

color safe wcag app

The WCAG works hard towards a more accessible web. Color is one of the easiest ways to build your accessibility without losing time testing.

Color Safe is a free webapp that can test your color choices. You pick from a small set of fonts & sizes, then pick whatever colors you want for your foreground & background.

From there you’ll get an accessibility rating along with suggestions on how to improve your color choices(if needed).

Really great tool for anyone concerned about accessibility on the web.

9. Color Hunt

color hunt webapp

For a user-curated gallery of color schemes take a look at Color Hunt.

This free project was launched a couple of years back and continues to be a source of design inspiration. People submit their own color schemes into the site, then others vote on those color schemes.

You can sort by newest or by most popular and even vote on your favorites. Pretty cool right?

It’s an extremely simple web app so don’t expect too many features. It’s just a neat way to visually browse through many different color patterns at once.

10. Open Color

open colors webapp

Looking for something a little more web-friendly? Then check out the Open Color library.

This is a massive open source collection of color choices built around accessibility and browser support. Each color has been optimized for easy matching regardless of your layout’s design.

Check out the GitHub repo for more info and to download a copy of the styles.

11. HTML Color Codes

html color codes generator

HTML Color Codes is another info-focused color webapp.

This lets you pull all forms of HTML/CSS code for your color choices right from the app. You can search for any color you want, or go by their recommendations. Plus this even has a tool for generating color palettes that you can download as Adobe Swatch files.

Don’t let the name fool you: this app is for more than just HTML color.

It’s a brilliant tool for digital designers of all types who want easy access to color codes and reusable palettes.

12. Adobe Color CC

adobe color cc webapp

I can’t pass over the incredible Adobe Color CC webapp.

This free tool used to be called Adobe Kuler but it’s gone through a few iterations over the years. It’s still a free color picker but the interface has changed to make it easier for designers to build & save color schemes.

If you’re an Adobe user this tool is worth bookmarking. It supports up to 5 different colors in one scheme, and you can even upload images to pull dynamic color schemes automatically.


Written by Jake Rocheleau on December 11, 2017 and seen on 1stwebdesigner.com

How We Searched Before Search


history of the web
history of the web

Everyone knows how to search the web. It’s part of our vernacular. But “googling it” was not always a given. In the early days of the web, discovering new sites looked a lot different.

The first web servers to come online came mostly from academic and scientific institutions, and in some rarer cases, dedicated hobbyists. The web community was a relatively close-knit one with an esoteric skill-set and knowledge base. So Tim Berners-Lee, creator of the web, took a very pragmatic approach to keeping track of new websites. He made a list for everyone to see. A list of every single website. Except he wrote his list in hypertext.

When new sites were created, the site owner could send a link over to Berners-Lee, who would, in turn, add it to info.cern.ch/Overview.html, a page on the first website ever created. This eventually came to be known as the WWW Virtual Library, an attempt by Berners-Lee to keep track of every website out there, organized by category. For a little while, it all stayed that simple. If you were looking for new websites, you could just check the list.

In June of 1993, the web was showing signs of truly taking off. To keep track, NCSA started a list of their own which they called “What’s New.” Each day, the team would add a few new links for visitors to check out. At the time, NCSA was best known for Mosaic, later Netscape Navigator, later Mozilla Firefox. Their browser was extremely popular in the early days of the web. So the “What’s New” page had a lot eyeballs and site owners were motivated to send them links to put up.

O’Reilly Media was the next to throw their hat into the ring. In August of 1993, they created the Global Network Navigator website, their own take on web discovery. GNN is credited as the first web publication, and built on the success of Ed Krol’s Whole Internet User’s Guide and Catalog. The User’s Guide offered readers a tour of the Internet and the World Wide Web. The GNN site included this tour in a more interactive form, alongside news and a global directory of sites for various products and services. GNN would later break new ground experimenting with advertising and publishing techniques. But when it first launched in the summer of ’93, its goal was to help visitors discover the magic of the web.

Modern search technology is based on the premise of crawling. Search engines send out bots to crawl through websites, scrape their content, and then index it. This indexed information is then paired to a text based search. But in the early 90’s, nothing like this existed on the web. The concept, however, was not unheard of. Archie was a system that used crawling to help users find FTP files, and is commonly known as the Internet’s first search engine. But it took Matthew Gray to bring crawling to the web.

While NCSA was getting their “What’s New” page up and running, Gray was working at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology on a new tool he dubbed the World Wide Web Wanderer (catchy, I know). The Wanderer was able to traverse a large part of the web automatically by scraping its content one by one. This data was then compiled into a database known as the Wandex.

The Wanderer had a few initial kinks to work out. In its earliest version, the crawler would access the same websites hundreds of times a day, causing most still nascent (and fragile) sites to crash. Gray fixed this issue pretty quick though, and the Wandex grew. The Wandex, however, was not used as a search engine, and certainly not in the way we think of today. Instead, the Wandex gave an overview of the state of the web. It was built to track the growth of the web over time. So visiting the Wanderer’s website would give you stats on how many servers and websites were online. But it didn’t provide much in the way of search.

Crawling was used in less traditional ways as well. In September of 1993, Oscar Nierstrasz created a new site called W3Catalog. Its premise was simple. Take high quality lists like the WWW Virtual Library and NCSA What’s New entries and put them all in one place. The curated listicle is almost as old as the web itself.

Nierstrasz used a custom built scraper built in Perl to index these lists from time to time and download them to a centralized webpage. There, visitors could peruse the best of all worlds, and get a more complete picture about the latest and greatest websites. Combining curation and automation, W3Catalog took advantage of the standards and openness of the web to create a one of a kind discovery tool.

Not long after the release of W3Catalog, new search engines began sprouting up. These relied more heavily on crawling and indexing, and less on manual curation. Soon this became the dominant method of search, and the curated list retreated to individual blogs in the form of blogrolls, where site owners would hyperlink their favorite sites. Publications like GNN and What’s New continued of course, but the web mostly outpaced these efforts. Search continues to evolve, but its still fun to remember a time when getting noticed was as simple as emailing the creator of the web and saying “Hey, I’ve just set up a server, and it’s dead cool. Here’s the address.” 

Don’t miss http://vlib.org/admin/history where I saw this and of course, https://thehistoryoftheweb.com/

htaccess blocking recipes

Block byhtaccess-how to IP address

You might have one particular IP address, or multiple IP addresses that are causing a problem on your website. In this event, you can simply outright block these problematic IP addresses from accessing your site.



Block a single IP address

If you just need to block a single IP address, or multiple IPs not in the same range, you can do so with this rule:

deny from

Block a range of IP addresses

To block an IP range, such as –, you can leave off the last octet:

deny from 123.123.123You can also use CIDR (Classless Inter-Domain Routing) notation for blocking IPs:

To block the range –, use

To block the range –, use

deny from

Block bad users based on their User-Agent string

Some malicious users will send requests from different IP addresses, but still using the same User-Agent for sending all of the requests. In these events you can also block users by their User-Agent strings.

Block a single bad User-Agent

If you just wanted to block one particular User-Agent string, you could use this RewriteRule:

RewriteEngine On
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} Baiduspider [NC]
RewriteRule .* - [F,L]

Alternatively, you can also use the BrowserMatchNoCase Apache directive like this:

BrowserMatchNoCase "Baiduspider" bots

Order Allow,Deny
Allow from ALL
Deny from env=bots

Block multiple bad User-Agents

If you wanted to block multiple User-Agent strings at once, you could do it like this:

RewriteEngine On
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^.*(Baiduspider|HTTrack|Yandex).*$ [NC]
RewriteRule .* - [F,L]

Or you can also use the BrowserMatchNoCase directive like this:

BrowserMatchNoCase "Baiduspider" bots
BrowserMatchNoCase "HTTrack" bots
BrowserMatchNoCase "Yandex" bots

Order Allow,Deny
Allow from ALL
Deny from env=bots

Block by referer

Block a single bad referer

If you just wanted to block a single bad referer like example.com you could use this RewriteRule:

RewriteEngine On
RewriteCond %{HTTP_REFERER} example\.com [NC]
RewriteRule .* - [F]

Alternatively, you could also use the SetEnvIfNoCase Apache directive like this:

SetEnvIfNoCase Referer "example\.com" bad_referer

Order Allow,Deny
Allow from ALL
Deny from env=bad_referer

Block multiple bad referers

If you just wanted to block multiple referers like example.com and example.net you could use:

RewriteEngine On
RewriteCond %{HTTP_REFERER} example\.com [NC,OR]
RewriteCond %{HTTP_REFERER} example\.net [NC]
RewriteRule .* - [F]

Or you can also use the SetEnvIfNoCase Apache directive like this:

SetEnvIfNoCase Referer "example\.com" bad_referer
SetEnvIfNoCase Referer "example\.net" bad_referer  

Order Allow,Deny
Allow from ALL
Deny from env=bad_referer


Temporarily block bad bots

In some cases you might not want to send a 403 response to a visitor which is just a access denied message. A good example of this is lets say your site is getting a large spike in traffic for the day from a promotion you’re running, and you don’t want some good search engine bots like Google or Yahoo to come along and start to index your site during that same time that you might already be stressing the server with your extra traffic.

The following code will setup a basic error document page for a 503 response, this is the default way to tell a search engine that their request is temporarily blocked and they should try back at a later time. This is different then denying them access temporarily via a 403 response, as with a 503 response Google has confirmed they will come back and try to index the page again instead of dropping it from their index.

The following code will grab any requests from user-agents that have the words botcrawl, or spider in them which most of the major search engines will match for. The 2nd RewriteCond line allows these bots to still request a robots.txt file to check for new rules, but any other requests will simply get a 503 response with the message “Site temporarily disabled for crawling”.

Typically you don’t want to leave a 503 block in place for longer than 2 days. Otherwise Google might start to interpret this as an extended server outage and could begin to remove your URLs from their index.

ErrorDocument 503 "Site temporarily disabled for crawling"
RewriteEngine On
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^.*(bot|crawl|spider).*$ [NC]
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_URI} !^/robots\.txt$
RewriteRule .* - [R=503,L]

This method is good to use if you notice some new bots crawling your site causing excessive requests and you want to block them or slow them down via your robots.txt file. As it will let you 503 their requests until they read your new robots.txt rules and start obeying them. You can read about how to stop search engines from crawling your website for more information regarding this.

You should now understand how to use a .htaccess file to help block access to your website in multiple ways.

6G Firewall

perishable press blacklist

The 6G Firewall is a powerful, well-optimized blacklist that checks all URI requests against a set of carefully constructed .htaccess directives. This happens quietly behind the scenes at the server level, which is optimal for performance and resource conservation. Most WordPress plugins require both PHP and MySQL, which can be overkill and even wasteful depending on the scenario and your overall security strategy. Implementing an .htaccess solution such as the 6G Firewall, the code is executed without invoking the memory and resources required for PHP, MySQL, etc. That gives you better performance while saving server resources for legitimate traffic.

How it works

Like other Apache firewalls and blacklists, the 6G operates at the server-level. Basically you add the 6G code to your site’s root .htaccess file and then sit back and relax while 6G works its magic. That’s the beauty of it: there is no configuration required. Just add the code and done.

Once implemented, 6G scans every HTTP request made to your site. It compares key aspects of each request against a carefully formulated set of patterns and expressions. So if someone or something triggers a match, they immediately are blocked, silently behind the scenes (via 403 Forbidden response). So legitimate visitors can continue to surf your site with total confidence, while the bad guys are busy getting kicked to the curb by 6G.

6G Firewall

The 6G Firewall/Blacklist consists of the following sections:

  • # 6G:[REFERRER]
  • # 6G:[USER AGENT]
  • # 6G:[IP ADDRESS]

Each of these sections works independently of the others, such that you could, say, omit the entire query-string and IP-address blocks and the remaining sections would continue to work just fine. Mix ’n match ’em to suit your needs. This code is formatted for deployment in your site’s root.htaccess file. Remember: always make a backup of your .htaccess before making any changes.

# @ https://perishablepress.com/6g/

<IfModule mod_rewrite.c>
	RewriteEngine On
	RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} (eval\() [NC,OR]
	RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} (127\.0\.0\.1) [NC,OR]
	RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} ([a-z0-9]{2000,}) [NC,OR]
	RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} (javascript:)(.*)(;) [NC,OR]
	RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} (base64_encode)(.*)(\() [NC,OR]
	RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} (GLOBALS|REQUEST)(=|\[|%) [NC,OR]
	RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} (<|%3C)(.*)script(.*)(>|%3) [NC,OR]
	RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} (\\|\.\.\.|\.\./|~|`|<|>|\|) [NC,OR]
	RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} (boot\.ini|etc/passwd|self/environ) [NC,OR]
	RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} (thumbs?(_editor|open)?|tim(thumb)?)\.php [NC,OR]
	RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} (\'|\")(.*)(drop|insert|md5|select|union) [NC]
	RewriteRule .* - [F]

<IfModule mod_rewrite.c>
	RewriteCond %{REQUEST_METHOD} ^(connect|debug|move|put|trace|track) [NC]
	RewriteRule .* - [F]

<IfModule mod_rewrite.c>
	RewriteCond %{HTTP_REFERER} ([a-z0-9]{2000,}) [NC,OR]
	RewriteCond %{HTTP_REFERER} (semalt.com|todaperfeita) [NC]
	RewriteRule .* - [F]

<IfModule mod_alias.c>
	RedirectMatch 403 (?i)([a-z0-9]{2000,})
	RedirectMatch 403 (?i)(https?|ftp|php):/
	RedirectMatch 403 (?i)(base64_encode)(.*)(\()
	RedirectMatch 403 (?i)(=\\\'|=\\%27|/\\\'/?)\.
	RedirectMatch 403 (?i)/(\$(\&)?|\*|\"|\.|,|&|&amp;?)/?$
	RedirectMatch 403 (?i)(\{0\}|\(/\(|\.\.\.|\+\+\+|\\\"\\\")
	RedirectMatch 403 (?i)(~|`|<|>|:|;|,|%|\\|\s|\{|\}|\[|\]|\|)
	RedirectMatch 403 (?i)/(=|\$&|_mm|cgi-|etc/passwd|muieblack)
	RedirectMatch 403 (?i)(&pws=0|_vti_|\(null\)|\{\$itemURL\}|echo(.*)kae|etc/passwd|eval\(|self/environ)
	RedirectMatch 403 (?i)\.(aspx?|bash|bak?|cfg|cgi|dll|exe|git|hg|ini|jsp|log|mdb|out|sql|svn|swp|tar|rar|rdf)$
	RedirectMatch 403 (?i)/(^$|(wp-)?config|mobiquo|phpinfo|shell|sqlpatch|thumb|thumb_editor|thumbopen|timthumb|webshell)\.php

<IfModule mod_setenvif.c>
	SetEnvIfNoCase User-Agent ([a-z0-9]{2000,}) bad_bot
	SetEnvIfNoCase User-Agent (archive.org|binlar|casper|checkpriv|choppy|clshttp|cmsworld|diavol|dotbot|extract|feedfinder|flicky|g00g1e|harvest|heritrix|httrack|kmccrew|loader|miner|nikto|nutch|planetwork|postrank|purebot|pycurl|python|seekerspider|siclab|skygrid|sqlmap|sucker|turnit|vikspider|winhttp|xxxyy|youda|zmeu|zune) bad_bot
	# Apache < 2.3
	<IfModule !mod_authz_core.c>
		Order Allow,Deny
		Allow from all
		Deny from env=bad_bot

	# Apache >= 2.3
	<IfModule mod_authz_core.c>
			Require all Granted
			Require not env bad_bot

# 6G:[BAD IPS]
	Order Allow,Deny
	Allow from All
	# uncomment/edit/repeat next line to block IPs
	# Deny from 123.456.789

To implement: include the entire 6G Blacklist in the root .htaccess file of your site. Remember to backup your original .htaccess file before making any changes.

More information :


All appreciation and support goes to Jeff Starr aka @perishable whos spends countless hours researching and developing the Blacklist I’ve first come across back in 2010.